Beaumont, J. 2013. Measuring National Well-being – Older people and loneliness, 2013 (Office for National Statistics: London)

Cacioppo JT, Hughes ME, Waite LJ, Hawkley LC, Thisted RA. 2006. Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Psychology and Aging 21 (1) pp. 140-51.

Cattan, M., White, M., Bond, J. and Learmouth, A. 2005. Preventing social isolation and loneliness among older people: a systematic review of health promotion interventions Ageing & Society 25 (1), pp. 41–67

Cohen, G.D. et al. 2006 ‘The impact of professionally conducted cultural programs on the physical health, mental health, and social functioning of older adults’ The Gerontologist 46 (6)

Green B. H, Copeland J. R, Dewey M. E, Shamra V, Saunders P. A, Davidson I. A, Sullivan C, McWilliam C. 1992. Risk factors for depression in elderly people: A prospective study. Acta Psychiatr Scand.86 (3) pp.213–7

Harrop, A and Jopling, K. 2009. One Voice: shaping our ageing society (Age Concern and Help the Aged)

Hawkley LC, Thisted RA, Masi CM, Cacioppo JT. 2010. Loneliness predicts increased blood pressure: 5-year cross-lagged analyses in middle-aged and older adults. Psychology and Aging 25 (1) pp.132-41

Holt-Lunstad J, TB, Layton JB. 2010. Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review. PLoS Medicine 7 (7)

Holwerda, T. J. Deeg, D., Beekman, A. van Tilburg, T.G., Stek, M.L., Jonker, C., and Schoevers, R. 2012. Research paper: Feelings of loneliness, but not social isolation, predict dementia onset: results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL) Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry  

James BD, Wilson RS, Barnes LL, Bennett DA. 2011. Late-life social activity and cognitive decline in old age. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 17 (6) pp. 998-1005.

Lund R, Nilsson CJ, Avlund K. 2010. Can the higher risk of disability onset among older people who live alone be alleviated by strong social relations? A longitudinal study of non-disabled men and women. Age and Ageing 39 (3) pp. 319-26

Marmot, M. 2010. Fair Society, Healthy Lives, the Marmot Review (The Marmot Review: London)

O’Connell, H., Chin, A., Cunnigham, C and Lawlor, B. 2004. Recent developments: Suicide in older people British Medical Journal 29 pp.895–9

Office for National Statistics. 2010. General Lifestyle Survey 2008 (Office for National Statistics: London)

Office for National Statistics, 2012. 2011 Census – Population and Household Estimates for England and Wales, March 2011 [pdf] Available at:

Perlman, D and Peplau, LA., 1981. Toward a social psychology of loneliness. In R Gilmour and S Duck (eds), Personal Relationships 3: personal relationships in disorder (pp 31–43) (Academic Press, London)

Russell DW, Cutrona CE, de la Mora A, Wallace RB. 1997. Loneliness and nursing home admission among rural older adults. Psychology and Aging 12(4) pp.574-89

Victor, C. 2011. Loneliness in old age: the UK perspective. Safeguarding the Convoy: a call to action from the Campaign to End Loneliness. (Age UK Oxfordshire: Oxford)

Victor, C. Scambler, S, Bond, J and Bowling, A. ‘Being alone in later life: loneliness, social isolation and living alone’ Reviews in Clinical Gerontology 2000 v.10 (4)